The scientific work of the department is focused on the study of the processes of interaction of electromagnetic, in particular laser, radiation with substance to develop the physical basis of new medical technologies, the search for new methods of image reconstruction in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound introscopy, computer processing of medical images. The department performed budgeted research works according to the thematic plan of the university “Physical bases of new medical technologies based on the use of radiophysical introscopy, spectroscopy, laser radiation” (1996-2000) and “Development of new radiophysical introscopy” (1996-2000). ) and “Development of new radiophysical methods of human diagnostics and treatment” (2001-2005), a subdivision of the faculty-wide complex theme “Development of physical models of application of radiophysical methods in medical information systems” (2005-2009), “Physical and information processes in condensed media” (2005-2009).
In the first years of the department’s work, the main tasks of scientific research were focused on the problems of liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Under the leadership of M. K. Novoselets, research on thyroid diseases, in particular its malignant neoplasms, was launched. Together with the staff of the Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, the department’s scientists (S. S. Sarkisov, now a professor at the University of Alabama (USA), V. A. Tsubin, S. P. Radchenko) collected a unique bank of computer images of the thyroid gland and a database of clinical signs of its diseases.
To organize the data and comfortable work with ultrasound examinations, software packages used in medical institutions were implemented (M. V. Kononov). Studies of the stochastic texture of ultrasound images of the thyroid gland led to the creation of a new technology for diagnosing its pathological conditions, which was approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Later, a model of the formation of the stochastic texture of parenchymal organs as physical systems with distributed parameters with nonlinear feedback was created (M. K. Novoselets) and a method for determining their state, which is protected by a patent of Ukraine (M. K. Novoselets, S. P. Radchenko).
Another area of fundamental research is the theory of artificial and natural neural networks and distributed systems. Much attention was paid to the development of laser medical technologies. A methodology for elemental and isotopic analysis of environmental elements and human and experimental animals was developed (G. O. Zykov, M. K. Novoselets). The use of laser mass spectrometric method of substance analysis is promising for determining the distribution of elements in a living organism, diagnosing various diseases, and monitoring the effectiveness of pharmaceuticals in treatment.
The processes of interaction of laser radiation with biological tissues were studied by P. A. Korotkov, V. I. Malyi, A. I. Ivanisik, and A. I. Pysansky. The quantitative characteristics of the effectiveness of tooth enamel cleaning under the influence of laser pulses were determined. The method of differential reflection (backscattering) for determining the level of tissue coagulation was proposed.
The research of nonlinear phenomena in optics (A. Ivanisik) was carried out with the aim of using them to study the properties of biological objects. Significantly new experimental results were obtained.
K. Novoselts, M. V. Kononov, and I. V. Paliy developed a model of thermal processes in brain tissue under the influence of laser radiation of thermal level of exposure. The model and software tools can be used to plan the process of laser thermal destruction of localized brain lesions (tumors).
The sufficiency of the exposure zone for laser thermal destruction of this type of lesion was shown. Together with the Institute of Neurosurgery of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (academician Y. P. Zozulya, professor V. D. Rozumenko), the technology for the treatment of local brain lesions was created, and in cooperation with the SPE “Intermag” (V. I. Rudytsia) and the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (G. A. Galich) – software and hardware for its support. A model of thermotherapy under the influence of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation was also built (M. V. Kononov, M. K. Novoselets), which is promising for computer planning of treatment of inflammation and neoplasms of the prostate gland.
Prof. V. L. Sigal and Asp. V. M. Bidnenko built a theory of physical processes that occur during photodynamic therapy, combining micro- and macro-characteristics of the environment.
Among the applied developments of the use of optical radiation in medical technologies (P. A. Korotkov), it should be noted the creation of an algorithm for diagnosing the contrast sensitivity of the visual system in ophthalmology, spectrophotometric methods for determining the color stability of dentures.
The department pays great attention to the development of new methods and algorithms of radiophysical introscopy using magnetic resonance, radiation and ultrasound systems. M. K. Novoselts and O. O. Sudakov developed a model of magnetic resonance reconstruction in non-stationary inhomogeneous magnetic fields.
K. Novoselets and S. P. Radchenko developed a method of polychrome reconstruction of medical introscopic images. Its application for visualization in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound introscopy was tested. The method demonstrated high diagnostic efficiency due to the display of additional information about the physical parameters of the tissues under study. O. O. Sudakov and M. V. Kononov proposed a method for super-resolution of the three-dimensional distribution of nuclear spins modulated by the two-dimensional distribution of the function of spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times. A. V. Netreba developed a new reconstruction method for computed tomography, which allows to improve the quality of noisy images in X-ray, positron and emission tomography systems. For clinical practice, he developed software tools for segmentation of medical images, automated determination of the volume of tumors and other selected areas, and determination of quantitative parameters of images (M. V. Kononov, O. O. Sudakov).
A new area of research was the development of physical models for interpreting the statistical properties of the response of biological media, which is a significant problem in the theory and practical application of NMR tomography and ultrasound introscopy. A technique for determining the characteristics of the medium during sensing and recognizing pathological conditions of tissues was developed (S. P. Radchenko, graduate students Z. M. Skrypachenko and G. V. Aidoyan). A method of early diagnosis of thyroid diseases was developed, which, as part of a software and hardware complex for analyzing and processing primary diagnostic information, was installed for trial operation in the Department of Radio-induced General and Endocrine Pathology of the Institute of Clinical Radiology of the Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine. The software and hardware complex allows to improve the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound examinations.
Another important area is modeling of molecular structures. In particular, software tools for optimizing the process of computer-aided drug development have been implemented in cooperation with the Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
The development of new information technologies and software tools has been one of the priorities of the department’s scientific work since its foundation. Based on the results of scientific research (M. K. Novoselets, M. V. Kononov, S. P. Radchenko, O. O. Sudakov), software and hardware complexes (“Thyreoscan”, “Neuroplan”, “Telemag”) were developed and demonstrated at the international exhibitions “Interhospital-97”, “Interhospital-98” in Hanover, Germany.
An algorithm for computer modeling of surgical interventions in the treatment of brain diseases was developed, which allows neuronavigation to select the optimal trajectory of penetration of a special instrument into the area of surgical intervention, and to ensure the adjustment of the surgical system. Software tools for computer and magnetic resonance imaging were developed (M. V. Kononov, O. O. Sudakov) and used in clinical settings.
At the initiative of the Department, the development of telemedicine technologies and means of their support was launched in Ukraine. Together with SPE “Intermag” with the financial support of Yale University (USA), the Information Center for Telemedicine was created, original software and hardware for telemedicine care, information support for integrated diagnostics in radiology were developed. Methods of optimization of accumulation, classification and transmission of data for the needs of telemedicine are actively researched (O. O. Sudakov).
During its existence, the Department of Medical Radiophysics defended 2 doctoral dissertations (G. S. Felinsky and A. I. Ivanisik) and 5 candidate dissertations (S. P. Radchenko, O. O. Sudakov, A. V. Netreba, A. V. Mysnyk, B. B. Sus); two dissertations for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (V. Gaidar, A. Danik). Two PhD theses (S. M. Galchenko, O. V. Zakorchenyi) are prepared for defense.
Ivanisik A.I. developed a comprehensive use of methods for recording frequency-angle, space-angle, frequency-space spectra and solved the problem of experimental studies of the dynamics of nonlinear optical processes in control environments. For the first time, experimental data with time resolution were obtained and the asymmetry of the stokes component of the BWR indicator under the influence of stokes-anti-stokes parametric processes was theoretically described. The possibility of using self-focusing organic liquids to create highly efficient laser radiation transducers based on QCDs has been shown experimentally and theoretically.
The department implements interdisciplinary components, in particular the basics of biological, biophysical and medicinal chemistry, bioelectrochemistry, etc. (L.M. Grishchenko) and conducts research in the field of plasma medicine and plasmochemistry (Y.P. Veremiy). In particular, the work on the interaction of low-temperature chemically active atmospheric pressure plasma with biological objects is carried out in collaboration with scientists from the Department of Physical Electronics (FREX, KNU), the Department of Plant Biology (NSC “Institute of Biology and Medicine”, KNU) and the Institute of Evolutionary Ecology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Students are constantly involved in research as part of their graduation projects.
Since 1996, the department has been working on methods of restoring the structure and functions of biological systems at different levels using magnetic resonance, since 1999 – on methods of constructing X-ray tomographic images, methods of reducing the dose load in X-ray studies. Since 2001, the department has been developing and using the computing cluster and grid resources of the University Information and Computing Center [http://cluster.univ.kiev.ua/] within the framework of joint projects with the Technical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine [https://nll.biomed.kiev.ua/contacts], the Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the Institute of Physiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the Enamin company, which works in the field of pharmacology, the Squad company, which works in the field of information technology; the Institute of Innovative Microelectronics in Frankfurt (Oder), Germany; Research Center Jülich, Germany; Technical University of Berlin, Germany; Weyerhaeuser Institute for Applied Statistics and Stochastics, Germany; European Center for Nuclear Research; Institute of Oncology, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine.
Sudakov O.O. is one of the developers of the computing cluster and grid resources of the IEC of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv and some resources of the Ukrainian grid infrastructure; author and developer of unique software tools for modeling large connected dynamical networks, such as biological neural networks, using heterogeneous parallelization tools (graphical accelerators, multi-processors, workstation networks, clusters, grid), co-author of the discovery and study of stationary states with chaos and coherence in three-dimensional connected dynamical networks [https: //nll. biomed.kiev.ua/publications]. In addition, together with a graduate student V. Haidar (received her PhD in 2021), he developed a method for detecting and predicting epileptic seizures. Together with graduate student A. Danyk (received his PhD in 2021), he developed a technology for age-free compensation of scattered radiation in X-ray dianostics.
Sudakov is a co-author of methods for optimization, accumulation, classification and transmission of data for the needs of telemedicine (together with M. Kononov), co-author of software for work in the field of computer and magnetic resonance imaging (together with M. Kononov), developed a model of magnetic resonance reconstruction. V. Kononov), developed a model of magnetic resonance reconstruction in non-stationary inhomogeneous magnetic fields for accelerated optimal reconstruction of two-dimensional and three-dimensional images (under the guidance of M. Novoselets).